Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Mass Deportation of Non-Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula

Towards the later years of his life, Muhammad declared that he would expel all Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and leave only Muslims there. He had already started this mass deportation programme by expelling all Jews from Medina - including the tribes of Banu Mustaliq, Banu Qanuqa and Banu Nadir. He also mass-murdered the entire male population of Banu Quraiza (except boys who did not start growing pubic hair yet) for breaking a treaty to help him in war. Even two or three people trying to assassinate him was enough reason for him to expel an entire tribe, as was the case with Banu Nadir (read Muhammad's earliest biographies - Ibn Ishaq and Al-Tabari).

What is even more remarkable is that the Christians in the Arabian Peninsula caused no trouble for Muhammad and the Muslims. Yet he wanted to mass-deport them, something that his companion Umar fulfilled later.

Let us look at the authentic hadiths that show this:

1) Sahih Muslim 19:4366
It has been narrated by 'Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say:
I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.

2) Jami at Tirmidhi 3:19:1607
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah : "Umar bin Al-Khattab informed me that he heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: 'I will expel the Jews and the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula, and I will not leave anyone in it except a Muslim."

3) Sahih Muslim 19:4364
It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Jews of Banu Nadir and Banu Quraiza fought against the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) who expelled Banu Nadir, and allowed Quraiza to stay on, and granted favour to them until they too fought against him. Then he killed their men, and distributed their women, children and properties among the Muslims, except that some of them had joined the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) who granted them security. They embraced Islam. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) turned out all the Jews of Medina. Banu Qainuqa' (the tribe of 'Abdullah b. Salim) and the Jews of Banu Haritha and every other Jew who was in Medina.

4) Sahih Muslim 19:4363
It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said:

We were (sitting) in the mosque when the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) came to us and said: (Let us) go to the Jews. We went out with him until we came to them. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) stood up and called out to them (saying): O ye assembly of Jews, accept Islam (and) you will be safe. They said: Abu'l-Qasim, you have communicated (God's Message to us). The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: I want this (i. e. you should admit that God's Message has been communicated to you), accept Islam and you would be safe. They said: Abu'l-Qasim, you have communicated (Allah's Message). The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: I want this... - He said to them (the same words) the third time (and on getting the same reply) he added: You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I wish that I should expel you from this land. Those of you who have any property with them should sell it, otherwise they should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle (and they may have to go away leaving everything behind).

Hadith #4 shows Muhammad repeatedly asking Jews to embrace Islam and when they rejected, he proceeded on to expel them. Hadith #3 shows that he expelled every single Jew from Medina. This proves that the real reason for expulsion was their religion.

Muhammad forced the Jews to pay him a tax of half of their total produce if they wanted to stay in Khaibar until his close companion Umar expelled them. Umar completed the expulsion of Christians from Hijaz (Mecca plus Medina) and Jews from the Arabian Peninsula (Mecca, Medina, Yemen, Al-Yamama and Al-Arj combined) as we can see below:

5) Sahih al Bukhari 3:39:531
Narrated Ibn `Umar:
`Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz. When Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) had conquered Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it as its land became the property of Allah, His Apostle, and the Muslims. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) intended to expel the Jews but they requested him to let them stay there on the condition that they would do the labor and get half of the fruits. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) told them, "We will let you stay on thus condition, as long as we wish." So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on living there until `Umar forced them to go towards Taima' and Ariha'.

6) Sahih al Bukhari 4:52:288
Narrated Sa`id bin Jubair:
Ibn `Abbas said, "Thursday! What (great thing) took place on Thursday!" Then he started weeping till his tears wetted the gravels of the ground . Then he said, "On Thursday the illness of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) was aggravated and he said, "Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter and people should not differ before a prophet. They said, "Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) is seriously sick.' The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Let me alone, as the state in which I am now, is better than what you are calling me for." The Prophet (ﷺ) on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, "Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them." I forgot the third (order)" (Ya'qub bin Muhammad said, "I asked Al-Mughira bin `Abdur-Rahman about the Arabian Peninsula and he said, 'It comprises Mecca, Medina, Al-Yama-ma and Yemen." Ya'qub added, "And Al-Arj, the beginning of Tihama.")

I would like to remind the Muslims that they would feel really horrible if someone expelled them from their homes as retaliation to crimes committed by a group of Muslims. A little empathy would be enough to understand how the Christians and those Jews who did not do any aggression against Muslims felt when they were deported from their homes by Muhammad and his men. You can find occasions where Muhammad was tolerant to non Muslims, but that will not negate these cruelties that he committed. It is thus clear that Muhammad became extremely intolerant towards non-Muslims towards his later years and is a very bad example for humanity.